Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Vol 63, No 2 (2006)

Phylogeny and biogeography of the Canarian Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae)

Gregory J. Anderson
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, The University of Connecticut, United States

Gabriel Bernardello
Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba), Argentina

Lynn Bohs
Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, United States

Terri Weese
Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, United States

Arnoldo Santos-Guerra
Jardín de Aclimatación de la Orotava (ICIA), Spain


The endemic and rare Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii from the Canary Islands are notable in being andromonoecious, self compatible, highly heterandrous (with short >reward= anthers and one very long >pollination= anther), and bearing strongly zygomorphic corollas. Solanum vespertilio flowers are also tetramerous, and some display enantiostyly. Given their island distribution, uncommon for solanums, and many distinctive reproductive features, the phylogenetic position is of interest. With new molecular data from the chloroplast trnT-F region and the nuclear granule-bound starch synthase gene (GBSSI or waxy), we confirm the hypothesis that these two species are phylogenetically associated with Solanum lineages from Africa, rather than with previously suggested Mexican species. The phylogeny facilitates understanding the evolution of the unique suite of reproductive characteristics in these island endemics.


subgenus Leptostemonum;Solanum vespertilio;Solanum lidii;trnT-F region;granule-bound starch synthase gene;andromonoecy;heterandry;enantiostyly

Full Text:



Adsersen, H. 1995. Research on Islands: Classic, recent, and prospective approaches. In: Vitousek, P.M., Loope, L.L. & Adsersen, H. (eds.), Islands: Biological diversity and ecosystem function. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York, pp. 7-21.

Anderson, G.J., 1979. Dioecious Solanum of hermaphroditic origin is an example of a broad convergence. Nature 282: 836- 838. doi:10.1038/282836a0

Anderson, G.J., Bernardello, G., Opel, M., Santos Guerra, A. & Anderson, M. 2006. Reproductive biology of the dioecious Canary Islands endemic Withania aristata (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany 93: 1295-1305. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.9.1295

Anderson, G.J., Bohs, L., Santos-Guerra, A., Bernardello, G., Opel, M.R. & Martine, C. 2005. The few and the odd: the Solanaceae from the Canary Islands and the African connections of the endemic Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii. Abstracts of the Botany 2005 Conference, ID: 161.

Anderson, G.J. & Jansen, R.K. 1998. Biosystematic and molecular systematic studies of Solanum section Basarthrum and the origin and relationships of the pepino dulce (S. muricatum). Monographs in Systematic Botany of the Missouri Botanical Garden 68: 17-32.

Anderson, G.J., Johnson, S.D., Neal, P.R. & Bernardello, G. 2002. Reproductive biology and plant systematics: the growth of a symbiotic association. Taxon 51: 637-653. doi:10.2307/1555019

Anderson, G.J. & Symon, D.E. 1989. Functional dioecy and andromonoecy in Solanum. Evolution 43: 204-219. doi:10.2307/2409175

Andrus, N., Trusty, J., Santos-Guerra, A., Jansen, R.K. & Francisco- Ortega, J. 2004. Using molecular phylogenies to test phytogeographical links between East/South Africa-Southern Arabia and the Macaronesian islands - a review, and the case of Vierea and Pulicaria section Vieraeopsis (Asteraceae). Taxon 53: 333-346. doi:10.2307/4135612

Anguita, F. & Hernan, F. 2000. The Canary Islands origin: a unifying model. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 103: 1-26. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(00)00195-5

Bañares, A., Blanca, G., Güemes, J., Moreno, J.C. & Ortiz, S., eds. 2004. Atlas y libro rojo de la Flora Vascular amenazada de España. Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza, Madrid, España.

Barker, F.K. & Lutzoni, F.M. 2002. The utility of the incongruence length difference test. Systematic Biology 51: 625-637. doi:10.1080/10635150290102302

Bohs, L. 2004. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of Solanum section Lasiocarpa. Systematic Botany 29: 177-187. doi:10.1600/036364404772974310

Bohs, L. & Olmstead, R.G. 2001. A reassessment of Normania and Triguera (Solanaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 228: 33- 48. doi:10.1007/s006060170035

Bowers, K.A.W. 1975. The pollination ecology of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany 62: 633-638. doi:10.2307/2441943

Bramwell, D. & Bramwell, Z. 2001. Flores silvestres de las Islas Canarias, ed. 4. Editorial Rueda, Madrid, España.

Carine, M.A. 2005. Spatio-temporal relationships of the Macaronesian endemic flora: a relictual series or window opportunity? Taxon 54: 895-903.

Carlquist, S. 1974. Island biology. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Carrizo García, C. 2001. Ontogenia del androceo en Normania tripilla (Lowe) Lowe (Solaneae, Solanaceae). Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 59: 67-74.

Chiarini, F., Bernardello, G., Anderson, G. & Santos Guerra, A. (2006). Chromosomal differentiation of Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae), rare, endemic species of the Canary Islands (Spain). Caryologia 59: 277-283.

Coello, J., Cantagret, J.M., Hernan, F., Fuster, J.M., Ibarrola, E., Ancochea, E., Casquet, C., Jamona, C., Dias de Teran, J.R. & Cendrero, A. 1992. Evolution of the eastern volvanic ridge of the Canary Islands based on new K-Ar data. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 53: 251-274. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(92)90085-R

Cunningham, C.W. 1997. Is congruence between data partitions a reliable predictor of phylogenetic accuracy? Empirically testing an iterative procedure for choosing among phylogenetic methods. Systematic Biology 46: 464-478. doi:10.2307/2413692

Dupont, Y.L. & Olesen, J.M. 2006. Andromonoecy and buzz pollination in Solanum species (Solanaceae) endemic to the Canary Islands. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 63: 63-66. doi:10.3989/ajbm.2006.v63.i1.35

Farris, J.S., Källersjö, M., Kluge, A.G. & Bult, C. 1994. Testing significance of incongruence. Cladistics 10: 315-319. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1994.tb00181.x

Felsenstein, J. 1985. Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783-791. doi:10.2307/2408678

Francisco-Ortega, J., Hawkes, J.G., Lester, R.N. & Acebes-Ginovés, J.R. 1993. Normania, an endemic Macroesian genus distinct from Solanum (Solanaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 185: 189-205. doi:10.1007/BF00937657

Hunziker, A.T. 2001. Genera Solanacearum. The genera of Solanaceae illustrated, arranged according to a new system. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.-G, Ruggell, Liechtenstein.

Jaeger, P.M.L. 1985. Systematic studies in the genus Solanum in Africa. Ph. D. dissertation. Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Birmingham, UK.

Jesson, L.K. & Barrett, S.C.H. 2003. The comparative biology of mirror-image flowers. International Journal of Plant Science 164: 237-249. doi:10.1086/378537

Jesson, L.K. & Barrett, S.C.H. 2005. Experimental tests of the function of mirror-image flowers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 85: 167-179. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00480.x

Jesson, L.K., Kang, J., Wagner, S., Barrett, S.C.H. & Dengler, N.G. 2003. The development of enantiostyly. American Journal of Botany 90: 183-195. doi:10.3732/ajb.90.2.183

Knapp, S., Persson, V. & Blackmore, S. 1998. Pollen morphology and functional dioecy in Solanum (Solanaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 210: 113-139. doi:10.1007/BF00984731

Knapp, S., Bohs, L., Nee, M. & Spooner, D. M. 2004. Solanaceae - a model for linking genomics with biodiversity. Comparative Functional Genomics 5: 285-291. doi:10.1002/cfg.393

Lester, R.N., Francisco-Ortega, J. & Mazin, A.A. 1999. Convergent evolution of heterandry (unequal stamens) in Solanum, proved by sporoderm SEM. In: Nee, M., Symon, D.E., Lester, R.N. & Jessop, J.P. (eds.) Solanaceae IV. Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom, pp. 51-69.

Levin, R.A. & Miller, J.S. 2005. Relationships within tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae): paraphyly of Lycium and multiple origins of gender dimorphism. American Journal of Botany 92: 2044-2053. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.12.2044

Levin, R.A., Myers, N.R. & Bohs, L. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships among the “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany 93: 157-169. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.1.157

Levin, R.A., Watson, K. & Bohs, L. 2005. A four-gene study of evolutionary relationships in Solanum section Acanthophora. American Journal of Botany 92: 603-612. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.4.603

Marrero, A., González-Martín, M. 1998. Solanum vespertilio subsp. doramae A. Marrero & M. González-Martín, subsp. nov. (Solanaceae) de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias). Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 56: 388-390.

Mason-Gamer, R.J., Weil, C.F. & Kellogg, E.A. 1998. Granulebound starch synthase: Structure, function, and phylogenetic utility. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15: 1658-1673.

Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World. In: Nee, M., Symon, D.E., Lester, R.N. & Jessop, J.P. (eds.) Solanaceae IV. Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom, pp. 285-333.

Olmstead, R.G. & Palmer, J.D. 1997. Implications for the phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of Solanum from cpDNA restriction site variation. Systematic Botany 22: 19-29. doi:10.2307/2419675

Prohens, J., Anderson, G.J., Herraiz, J., Bernardello, G., Santos Guerra, A., Crawford, D. & Nuez, J. (in press). Genetic diversity and conservation of the endangered Canary Islands endemics: Solanum verpertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution.

Ramanna, M.S. & Hermsen, G.T. 1981. Structural hybridity in the series Etuberosa of the genus Solanum and its bearing on crossability. Euphytica 30: 15-81. doi:10.1007/BF00033655

Rambaut, A. 1996. Se-Al: Sequence Alignment Editor.

Spooner, D.M., Anderson, G.J. & Jansen, R.K. 1993. Chloroplast DNA evidence for the interrelationships of tomatoes, potatoes and pepinos. American Journal of Botany 80: 676-688. doi:10.2307/2445438

Stuessy, T.F. & Ono, M., eds. 1998. Evolution and speciation of island plants. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Swofford, D.L. 2002. PAUP* Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.

Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G. & Bouvet, J. 1991. Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Molecular Biology 17: 1105-1110. doi:10.1007/BF00037152

Todd, J.E. 1882. On the flowers of Solanum rostratum and Cassia chamaechrista. American Naturalist 16: 281-287. doi:10.1086/273056

Van der Leij, F.R., Visser, R.G.F., Postein, A.S., Jacobsen, E. & Feenstra, W.J. 1991. Sequence of the structural gene for granule- bound starch synthase of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and evidence for a single point deletion in the amf allele. Molecular Genetics 228: 240-248.

Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai’i. Vol. 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, USA.

Whalen, M.D. 1979. Taxonomy of Solanum Section Androceras. Gentes Herbarum 11: 359-426.

Whalen, M.D. 1984. Conspectus of species groups in Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum. Gentes Herbarum 12: 179-282.

Whalen, M.D. & Anderson, G.J. 1981. Distribution of gametophytic self-incompatibility and infrageneric classification in Solanum. Taxon 30: 761-767. doi:10.2307/1220077

Whalen, M.D. & Costish, D.E. 1986. Andromonoecy in Solanum. In: D’Arcy, W.G. (ed.), Solanaceae. Biology and Systematics. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 284-302.

Wiens, J.J. 1998. Combining data sets with different phylogenetic histories. Systematic Biology 47: 568-581. doi:10.1080/106351598260581

Yoder, A.D., Irwin, J.A. & Payseur, B.A. 2001. Failure of the ILD to determine data combinability for slow loris phylogeny. Systematic Biology 50: 408-424. doi:10.1080/106351501300318003

Copyright (c) 2006 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us:

Technical support: