Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Vol 70, No 1 (2013)

Not only size matters: achene morphology affects time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic species of Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae)


https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2351

Rubén Torices
Centro de Ecologia Funcional, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal

Alicia Agudo
Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC(RJB-CSIC), Spain

Inés Álvarez
Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC(RJB-CSIC), Spain

Abstract


The production of two or more distinct fruit types by an individual, i.e. heterocarpy, is considered as a mixed dispersal strategy in which a proportion of the offspring is able to colonize new sites, whilst others remain near the maternal location. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of achene morphology (winged vs. unwinged achenes) and achene size –measured here as achene mass– on post-dispersal life-history traits (probability and time of seedling emergence) in three heterocarpic Anacyclus species (Anthemideae, Asteraceae). Morphology, size and germination performance were studied in achenes from six populations of Anacyclus clavatus (Desf.) Pers., A. homogamos (Maire) Humphries, and A. valentinus L. Our results show that achene morphology and size were related to their position within the capitulum, such that outer, winged achenes were significantly heavier than the inner, unwinged ones. Additionally, winged achenes germinated faster than unwinged ones. This pattern may be related to the sequential achene time of release displayed by these species. Finally, our findings cast doubt on the role of wings as structures that favor dispersal by wind in these three species of Anacyclus.

Keywords


bet-hedging; Compositae; heterocarpy; mixed strategy; position effects; weeds; winged fruits

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References


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