Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Vol 65, No 2 (2008)

Warionia (Asteraceae): a relict genus of Cichorieae?

Liliana Katinas
División Plantas Vasculares, Museo de La Plata, Argentina

María Cristina Tellería
Laboratorio de Sistemática y Biología Evolutiva, Museo de La Plata, Argentina

Alfonso Susanna
Instituto Botánico de Barcelona, Spain

Santiago Ortiz
Laboratorio de Botánica, Facultade de Farmacia, Universidade de Santiago, Spain


The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.


Africa; Cardueae; chromosome number; Cichorieae; laticifers; pollen; taxonomy

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