Displacement of the habitat of the macrolichens of the montane forest under a global warming scenario in the northeastern Venezuelan Andes


  • Vicente Marcano Laboratorio de Biología Evolutiva y de Organismos Extremos, Grupo de Ciencias Atmosféricas y el Espacio, Facultad de Ciencias, Programa de Ciencias Espaciales, Universidad de Los Andes https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0068-6642
  • Laura Castillo Estación Biológica Experimental “Vicente Marcano”, Organización Kailasha, Parque Sierra Nevada - ETSUFOR, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, Universidad de Los Andes https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8495-8387




Lichens, forest understory, Cordillera de Merida, habitat loss


In order to quantify the risks of total and local habitats loss of the Andean lichens due to the global warming projected for the end of the century and the associated upward migration, we carried out lichenological collections in the undergrowth forest at the National Park Sierra Nevada de Merida, Venezuela. We focus on an elevation gradient from the montane forest (2100–3000 m). A total of 1200 individuals, 401 lichenological samples, 38 genera and 145 species were registered; 94 species from the low montane forest and 90 species from the high montane forest. For the purpose of demonstrating the representativeness of the sampling, performance of non-parametric estimators Chao 1 and 2, Jacknife 1 and 2 was evaluated. Assuming a projected temperature increase of 4°C by the end of the century, lichen taxa would require an upward displacement of near 725 m a.s.l for maintain its habitat. The results indicate a total of 56.86% species would be threatened of disappearing by habitat loss having an increase ≤ 0.5°C; 69.60% species will lose its habitat having thermal increase ≤ 1°C; 92.15% species will lose its habitat having thermal increase ≤ 4°C whereas 11% (endemic) species will lose its total habitat having thermal increase ≤ 1°C. Risk of massive disappearance in all the scenarios would be expected.


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How to Cite

Marcano, V., & Castillo, L. (2023). Displacement of the habitat of the macrolichens of the montane forest under a global warming scenario in the northeastern Venezuelan Andes. Anales Del Jardín Botánico De Madrid, 80(2), e143. https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.597