The pollen morphology of species of Gongylolepis (Mutisiae: Asteraceae) in the Venezuelan Guayana


  • Paola Ubiergo Instituto de Biología Experimental, Universidad Central de Venezuela
  • Marlene Lapp Instituto de Botánica Agrícola, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela
  • Pedro Torrecilla Instituto de Botánica Agrícola, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela



palinology, Gongylolepis, endemic plants, Venezuela


Gongylolepis is composed for 15 species, endemic to the Guyana region. This is the largest genus of tribe Mutiseae in the area. Palynological features have been studied for some members of the Mutiseae, but not for Gongylolepis. We studied the pollen morphology of nine species of the genus, using samples from herbarium material. The observations were made in 10 to 15 pollen grains for species and features of the spines, colpus, polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine structure, pollen type, apertures, perforations and P/E ratio to determinate pollen shape, were analyzed. Observations and pictures were made with light microscope and scanning electron microscope. With this information, a matrix and conglomerate analysis was made. Gongylolepis pollen is tricolporate, spheroidal and mainly of great size. Differences in exine ornamentation were enough to discriminate the studied species. Spines are conical, with perforations near of the base, but with differences in the apex shape. The dendogram showed four groups, where the size, shape, exine ornamentation, spines, colpus and perforations were of importance to the classification of the species considered.


Download data is not yet available.


Arias, J. 2005. Revisión taxonómica del género Stevia Cav. (Asteraceae-Eupatorieae) en Venezuela. Trabajo de postgrado de Botánica Agrícola. Facultad de Agronomía. Universidad Central de Venezuela. Maracay.

Baldwin, B.G., Wessa, B.L. & Panero, J.L. 2002. Nuclear rDNA evidence for major lineages of Helenioid Heliantheae (Compositae). Systematic Botany 27(1): 161-198.

Bentham, G. 1873. Compositae. In: G. Bentham & J.D. Hooker (eds.), Genera Plantarum 2(1): 163-533. London.

Bremer, K. 1993. Intercontinental relationships of African and South American Asteraceae: a cladistic biogeographic analysis. In: P. Goldblatt (ed.), Biological relationships between Africa and South American. Yale University Press, 104-135. New Haven.

Bremer, K. 1994. Asteraceae. Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press. Oregon.

Bremer, K. &. Jansen, R. 1992. A new subfamily of the Asteraceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 414-415. doi:10.2307/2399777

Bremer, K., Jansen, R., Karis, P. & Kim, K. 1992. Current research on Asteraceae phylogeny and Classification. Compositae Newsletter 20 / 21: 1-3.

Cabrera, A. 1977. Mutisieae-systematic review. In: V.H. Heywood, & al. (eds.), The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae 2: 1039-1066. London.

Carlquist, S. 1957. Anatomy of Guayana Mutisieae. Part II. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 9(3): 441-476.

Cassini, H. 1816. Tableau exprimant les affinities des tribus naturelles de famille des Synanthérées. In: G. Cuvier (ed.), Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles Vol. 3. Paris.

Crisci, J.V. 1974. A numerical-taxonomic study of the subtribe Nassauviinae (Compositae, Mutisieae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 55: 568-610.

De Candolle, A. 1837. Prodromus Systematics Naturaliz Regni Vegetabilis 6: 219-221.

Díaz-Piedrahita, S. &. Velez-Nauer, C. 1993. Revisión de las tribus Barnadesiae y Mutisieae (Asteraceae) para la Flora de Colombia. Monografías del Jardín Botánico José Celestino Mutis. Vol. I.

Erdtman, G. 1972. Pollen morphology and plant Taxonomy, Angiosperms: A introduction to Palinology I. Hafner Publishing Company. New York.

Felippe, G.M. & Salgado-Labouriau, M.L. 1964. Pollen grains of plants of the Cerrado. Compositae Tribu Heliantheae. Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 3: 85-101.

Funk, V.A., Bayer, R.J., Keeley, S., Chan, R., Watson, L., Gemeinholzer, B., Schilling, E.E., Panero, J.L., Baldwin, B.G., García Jacas, N., Susanna, A. & Jansen, R.K. 2005. Everywhere but Antarctica: using a supertree to understand the diversity and distribution of the Compositae. Biologiske Skrifter 55: 343-373.

Gamerro, J.C. 1985. Morfología del polen de Huarpea y su relación con Barnadesia (Mutisieae, Compositae). Darwiniana 26 (1-4): 43-51.

Hansen, H.V. 1991. Phylogenetic studies in Compositae tribe Mutisieae. Opera Botanica 109: 1-50.

Hoffmann, O. 1890. Compositae. In: A. Engler & K. Prantl (eds.), Die Naturlischer Pflanzenfamilien 4(5): 87-391. Berlin.

Judd, W., Campbell, C., Kellogs, E., Stevens P. & Donoghue. M.J. 2002. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetics Approach. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland.

Kim, H.G., Dennis, J.L., & Jansen R.K. 2002. Systematic implications of ndhF sequence variation in the Mutisieae (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 27: 598-609.

Lapp, M. & Castro, M. 2004. Estudio palinológico de especies venezolanas del género Oyedaeae DC. (Asteraceae). Ernstia 14 (1-4): 53-67.

Lin, N., Wang, H., Li, D. & Blackmore, S. 2005. Pollen Morphology of eight genera of the subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) from Asia. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 47(9): 1036-1046. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00124.x

Panero, J.L. & Funk, V.A. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asreraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society Washington 115: 909-922.

Panero, J.L. & Funk, V.A. 2008. The value of sampling anomalous taxa in phylogenetic studies: Major clades of the Asteraceae reveled. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution 47: 757-782. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.02.011

Parra, O. & Marticorena, C. 1972. Granos de polen de plantas chilenas, II: Compositae-Mutisieae. Gayana 21: 3-107.

Pruski, J. 1997. Asteraceae. In: J.A. Steyermark & al. (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 3: 177-392. Missouri.

Punt, W., Hoen, P.P., Blackmore, S., Nilsson, S. & Le Thomas, A. 2007. Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 143: 1-81 doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.06.008

Rae, T.C. 1998. The logical basis for the use of Continuous Characters in Phylogenetic Systematics. Cladistics 14: 221-228. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1998.tb00335.x

Robinson, H. 1991. Two new species of Stifftia, notes on relationships of the genus (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Systematic Botany 16: 685-692. doi:10.2307/2418870

Rohlf, F. 2000. NTSYS-pc. Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Análisis system. Version 2.1. Exeter Software. Applied Biostatistics. New York.

Roque, N. & Silvestre-Capelato, M.S.F. 2001. Generic delimitation of Gochnatia, Richterago and Lanthopappus (Compositae-Mutisieae) based on pollen morphology. Grana 40: 197-204. doi:10.1080/001731301317223132

Sáenz de Rivas, C. 1978. Introducción a la palinología y vocabulario palinológico. H. Blume Ediciones. Madrid.

Salgado-Labouriau M.L. 1982. On cavities in spines of Compositae pollen. Grana 21:97-102.

Simon, C. 1983. A new coding procedure for morphometric data with an example from periodical cicada wing veins. In: J. Felsenstein (ed.), Numerical Taxonomy pp. 378-283. Springer-Verlag. Berlin,

Skvarla J.J. & Turner B.L. 1966. Systematic implications from electron microscopic studies of Compositae pollen: A review. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 53(2): 220-256. doi:10.2307/2394944

Skvarla, J.J., Turner, B.L., & Patel, V.C. 1977. Pollen morphology in the Compositae and in morphologically related families. In: V.H. Heywood & al. (eds), The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae. London.

Stix, E. 1960. Pollenmorfologische Untersuchungen an Compositen. Grana 2: 39-114.

Tellería, M.C. 2008. Taxonomy significance of pollen types in the Guayana Highland-centred composite genera of Mutisioideae (Asteraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 156: 327-340. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00745.x

Telleria, M.C., Urtubey, E., & Katinas, L. 2003. Proustia and Lophopappus (Asteraceae, Mutisieae): Generic and subtribal relationships based on pollen morphology. Review of palaeobotany and palynology 123: 237-246. doi:10.1016/S0034-6667(02)00227-0

Urtubey, E. & Telleria, M.C. 1998. Pollen morphology of the subfamily Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae) and its phylogenetic and taxonomy significance. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 104: 19-37. doi:10.1016/S0034-6667(98)00049-9

Wodehouse, R.P. 1929. Pollen grains in the identification and classification of plants IV. The Mutisieae. American Journal of Botany 16: 297- 313. doi:10.2307/2435781




How to Cite

Ubiergo, P., Lapp, M., & Torrecilla, P. (2009). The pollen morphology of species of Gongylolepis (Mutisiae: Asteraceae) in the Venezuelan Guayana. Anales Del Jardín Botánico De Madrid, 66(1), 93–107.